The mountains are one of the most beautiful natural wonders. As the famous song says: "Only mountains can be better than mountains, on which no one has ever been ..." Being in the mountains, each of us feels an indescribable delight and full unity with nature. There are many such places on earth, but one of the most noteworthy is the Tien-Shan mountains. What is translated from Chinese means "Celestial Mountains". In Turkic, this name sounds like Tanra-Nishan (Tanra - God, Nishan - label).
The western half of the mountain system of the Tien Shan is located in the territories of such republics as Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The eastern half is within China. Tien Shan stretched from west to east for 2500 kilometers, of which 1500 fall on the territory of the republics of Central Asia.
The highest point of the whole system of the Western Tien Shan, entering the limits of Uzbekistan is Mount Beshtar (4299 m). The western part extends the Inner Tien Shan, it is also called the syrt. The calm, albeit rapid flow of rivers on the valleys of the longitudinal valleys is replaced by bubbling rapids in the through transverse gorges.
The southwest, the Inner Tien Shan is surrounded by the Fergana Range, which in recent years has been raised along the ancient deep fault. The mountains of the Tien Shan and Gissar-Alay, in the east firmly connected by the Ferghana Range, and in the west closely adjacent to the neck of the Farhad Gates of the Syr Darya, widen widely between these nodes, embracing a gigantic basin behind which for some reason the name "Fergana Valley" nothing like a valley is here. This is an amazing tectonic oval of settling with diameters of 325 kilometers along the parallel and up to 90 along the meridian, occupying an area of more than 22,000 square kilometers. For its wealth Ferghana and in the past was considered the pearl of the Russian Empire.
Along the northern border of the Fergana ellipse, the transit Syr Darya flows, formed by the merger of Karadarya and Naryn. Their waters are fed by large main canals. The largest Chatkal range separates the Chirchik basin from the rivers that originate on the southeastern slopes of the Chatkal mountains. The cultural landscape dominates - the endless fields of cotton, cut by fans of irrigation ditches, green massifs of gardens, melons and vineyards, alleys of poplars and mulberry, white acacia, plane trees and karagachas. Large cities grew in oases: Andijan, Fergana, Kokand, Namangan, Margilan.
In the south, the coal-bearing valley of Akhangaran (Angren) is especially famous. One of the more northern valleys has glorified its cascade of 18 hydroelectric power stations Chirchik, and to it are opened the large valleys of its tributaries - Chatkal, Pskem and Ugam, whose names also identify the ridges adjoining them.
For the inhabitants of Tashkent, the Western Tien-Shan are cool and green suburban neighborhoods, favorite recreation places. A particularly good trip to Charvak and Chimgan. Above the mouth of the river Ugam Chirchik is the largest dam in the whole cascade (one and a half meters tall) of the Charvak hydroelectric dam. Its power is 600 thousand kilowatts. Two cubic meters of water entered the bays into the estuaries of the Chatkal and Pskema valleys, forming the Chirchik, creating an area of about 40 square kilometers.
There are three large reserves on the territory of Western Tien Shan: Aksu-Dzhabaglinsky, Sary-Chelek and Ugam-Chatkal.
The climate of the Tien Shan is sharply continental, due to its location at comparatively low latitudes within the continent, at a considerable distance from the Atlantic Ocean, among dry, flat desert spaces. However, the high ridges, complexity and dismemberment of the relief cause significant contrasts in temperatures and the degree of moistening. The influence of neighboring deserts has a greater impact on the climate of the foothills and the low-mountain zone.