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Uzbekistan is a country of contrasts, where deserts coexist with blessed oases of valleys; where the majestic mountains look into their reflection of the watery surface of sleeping lakes and raging rivers; where modern Tashkent borders on villages that appeared among the fields planted with poplars; where in one street new-fashioned cars and old arbas, harnessed by donkey laborers, collide; where the glamorous luxury of huge supermarkets competes with the efficiency of traditional oriental bazaars, where you can buy everything the same as in stores, but at a much more favorable price. Then hurry to Uzbekistan, where, as anywhere else, any guest is welcome.
The main wealth of the country are its people, sociable and open, ready to invite a stranger to visit right after the conversation begins. Having traveled to Uzbekistan, you will pass the roads of Khoja Nasreddin and plunge into the past. Here you can taste real Uzbek pilaf cooked according to a recipe, which is more than a thousand years old. In Uzbekistan, you will certainly be served with delicious hot cakes and breads straight from the tandoor. The taste of hot cakes, especially in the mornings, with a sweet tea is familiar to all residents of Uzbekistan since childhood. And where, if not in Uzbekistan, you will come across a huge variety of dried fruits and oriental sweets.
Uzbekistan is rightfully considered a treasure trove of architectural monuments, concentrated in the oldest cities on the Great Silk Road. Here you can see the real ancient East - in Khiva, Samarkand and Bukhara, as well as modern Tashkent. Regarding monuments, it can be said without exaggeration that Samarkand and Bukhara are leading in this indicator among the cities of Central Asia.
The mosques and madrasahs of Samarkand, with their unchanging blue domes and blue-green openwork paintings, are a matter of special pride.
Particularly colorful Registan - the central square of ancient Samarkand, an unchanging object of thousands of photographs and postcards. Giant monuments of the glory of the medieval capital of many states are visible throughout the central city. On the outskirts of Samarkand on the high cliff of Afrosiab hill, on the bank of the Siab River is the mausoleum of Saint Daniel, where Muslims, Christians and Jews go to worship his tomb. And what about at least one Samanid mausoleum in Bukhara, in which the founder of the Ismail Samani dynasty was buried in the 10th century. And the unique trading domes of Bukhara, which are still used for their intended purpose. Today they offer tourists old Bukharian coins, elements of national costume and antique silver jewelry.
The Republic of Uzbekistan is located in the central part of Central Asia. It has 12 regions , most of Uzbekistan is located within the Turan Lowland, a significant part of which is occupied by the Kyzyl-Kum desert. In the north-east and south - foothills and spurs of the Tien-Shan and Gissar-Alay. Between them are intermontane depressions: Ferghana, Zeravshan, Chirchik-Angren, etc. The main rivers are the Amudarya, the Syr Darya with tributaries, and the Aral Sea.
Due to its geographic location, the history of the Uzbek people is closely connected with the history of other Turkic peoples of neighboring countries and transcends the present-day Uzbekistan. The emergence of the first states on the territory of Uzbekistan dates back to the 8th-7th centuries BC, when such states as Khorezm, Bactria and Moveranahr, a state created by Amir Timur, were created. In 1370, Amir Timur was proclaimed the supreme emir of Turan.
The land of Uzbekistan is a witness to the ups and downs of the great empires of different epochs - Sogdiana, the State of Alexander the Great and others. The oldest cities on the territory of modern Uzbekistan are Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand, Khiva, Shakhrisabz, Karshi, Termez and Margilan. These cities have made a significant contribution to trade, the exchange of scientific achievements in knowledge and in the field of culture.
Therefore, the activities and influence of such outstanding representatives of the scientific and philosophical thought of Central Asia, such as Al-Kharizmi, Farabi, Avicenna, Beruni, is not limited to the borders of Maverannahr (the territory of modern Uzbekistan) and has not only national but also international significance.
Imam Muhammad al-Bukhari (810-870) is a well-known Islamic theologian, the author of the most authoritative and reliable Sunni collection of the hadith "Sahih al-Bukhari", which forms the basis of the Muslim Sunnah - the most important book after the Quran. Abu Ali ibn Sino (Avicenna) (980-1037) is one of the greatest thinkers and outstanding researchers in the field of medicine. His work known worldwide "Canon of Medical Science" was used as a textbook in European universities until the 17th century. Amir Temur (1336-1405) is a great ruler and strategist. The founder of the empire and dynasty of Timurids, with the capital in Samarkand. He was the ancestor of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire in India. He revived and developed the institutions of the state, social policy and military administration. Ulugbek (1393-1449) is the grandson of Amir Temur. He received education and education from Saray Mulk Khanum, the eldest wife of Amir Temur. He was an outstanding ruler, an astronomer and a mathematician. He built the first observatory and drew the first in the history of the world map of the starry sky.
The main types of traditional Uzbek arts and crafts are ceramics, weaving, carpet weaving, embroidery, chasing in copper, jewelry, gold embroidery, carving, painting on wood and ganch. Having visited Uzbekistan, be sure to visit the centers of ceramic art Gijduvan and Rishtan. Rishtan is a city between Kokand and Fergana. The most famous ceramic fishing in the Ferghana Valley, which is many hundreds of years old. Rishtan ceramics are inherent in all shades of blue and turquoise colors. The pattern is very small, the ornament is thin from a huge number of elements.
For centuries, Uzbekistan was located at the intersection of trade routes of the Great Silk Road, which was followed by merchants and pioneers, geographers and missionaries, invaders and conquerors. The Great Silk Road passed through the territory of modern Uzbekistan. Thanks to this prosperous cities such as Samarkand, Khorezm, Bukhara. These are the cities in which the unique fragrance of the eastern cities survived with their squares, caravanserais and medieval monuments of Islamic architecture.
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